Affiliate Marketing In Simple Steps: How To Start Your Business Online

Hey my friend, welcome to my new blog post where I will show you how you can create a 6-figure business with affiliate marketing in simple steps. In case you don’t know, affiliate marketing is a business model where you partner with a product owner to advertise his/her products or services so you get paid a commission. As an affiliate marketer, you’ll promote other businesses’ products and/or services and earn a commission based on the sales you make and the terms of your contract.

The way this works is very simple: when you become an affiliate for a merchant’s program, you agree to their terms and conditions and the merchant has a contractual agreement to provide you with the creative aspects to put on your web page.

You will be given a special link called referral link or affiliate link. When your site visitors click on that link, a cookie is placed on their computer on phone. If they make a purchase, the merchant’s system automatically checks for the cookie and credits you with the sales according to the terms of your contract.

You can promote products and services in a variety of ways, but most involve placing affiliate links on your website for your visitors or in your emails for your subscribers. Now, let’s see how you can make money online with affiliate marketing in simple steps.

1. First, Choose A Niche

Affiliate marketing has become more competitive in the recent past. Fortunately it has not lost its money-making appeal. It’s heavily performance-based, which makes it less risky for advertisers and merchants. In addition, the wide availability of this program makes it difficult to choose a program that will make you money.

I recommend you choose one of the evergreen niches from the following niche markets:

  • Health: people will always want to be healthy and lose weight. In this category, you can choose niches like weight loss, bodybuilding, teeth whitening, hair loss, depression, male enhancements, etc…
  • Wealth: this is anything that have to do with make money online. People will always want to make more money than ever, and if that’s what you want to help people achieve, you can choose niches like finance, investment, online business, internet marketing, multi-level marketing, business opportunities, etc…
  • Relationships: product that helps people solve their family and relationship issues will always have a market. This includes love, dating advice, marriage counselling, getting your ex back, online dating, etc…

There are so many of them and it’s impossible to not find a niche you are passionate about, that at the same time is something people need almost everyday. Here is a list of the common affiliate marketing networks you can use to find affiliate products to promote for free.

2. Create A Website And/Or A YouTube Channel

You can create a YouTube channel for free, then make and publish videos talking about your affiliate product (its pros and cons) with a link to your opt-in page in the description of your video, because it’s a great way to drive free traffic to your website.

However, if you are not good at making videos, create a website and start posting reviews to it. With product reviews, it’s easy to include affiliate links in a natural way. Also, reviews encourage website visitors to find out more about your affiliate product for themselves.

To ensure you’ll get results, write compelling content that sparks your readers’ interest. In addition, be as thorough as you can, be empathetic toward your readers, mention the product’s pros and cons and stay as objective as you can.

I’ve written a blog post that walks you through a step-by-step process to create your own blog website and you can read it here.

3. Build A Capture Page And Automate Your Affiliate Marketing Business

All you need to get started, once you’ve chosen a product to promote and created your website and/or YouTube channel, is a funnel builder like (it’s a drag and drop software and beginner-friendly) plus an email autoresponder like or

Inside ClickFunnels, you build an opt-in page where you collect your page visitors’ emails and send them to a thank you page where you’ll have a video of you telling them who you are, the benefits of the product you’re promoting, then remind them they’ll receive emails from you and they should be looking for those.

Only after those steps that you can ask them to click on your affiliate link to go to the merchant’s website. Never send visitors directly from your opt-in page to your affiliate website.

In addition, if you’re not comfortable making videos, use your picture and write a story on a thank you page to engage them before they are sent to your affiliate website. If you are new and think you don’t know how to do this, just create your 14 day free trial account with ClickFunnels and use the help button inside ClickFunnels to learn the basics.

4. Drive Fast Traffic To Your Affiliate Marketing Offers

You can run an ad on Facebook, Google, Instagram, or YouTube, but go for those only if you know what you are doing. You can search for anything on YouTube to have an idea on how it works, but I recommend you learn from those who’ve been there and done that.

I’ve spent thousands of dollars on those platforms with no return on my investment because I didn’t know what I was doing. You can see the exact dollar amounts on my “about me” page here.

Now, must you wait until you know how to drive paid traffic before you promote your affiliate products?

I think NO, you don’t have to wait. As we saw in step 2, you can use YouTube or a blog to drive traffic to your offers but they are to be used for long term goals.

To keep your business up and running while you are learning how to advertise on those platforms, I recommend you use solo ads to drive traffic to your affiliate products. It gives you immediate access to traffic and less chance to make a mistake. In other words, your risks are very low if you ask someone to email his/her email list so they can visit your website and buy from you. That’s what buying solo ads is all about.

There are so many places you can buy solo ad from, but to avoid receiving bad and fake traffic to your website, I use Udimi and recommend you do the same by creating your free solo ad account. It’s my affiliate link and when you use it to create your free account, you will get a $5 credit to use on traffic.

5. Learn New Skills And Grow Your Business Faster

The methods outlined in this post have been responsible for thousands of successful online businesses that generate over $100,000 every single year if applied correctly. This is what made me my first $10,000 online. However, I’m not implying that you will make any specific amount of money here because I don’t know what are the efforts you will be putting into this. What I believe to be true is that this will dramatically change your life if you don’t quit and do what it takes to make it work.

One big question is: are there people who are making a lot of money doing this?

YES. So, if you are not getting results yet, there’s a chance that you are doing something wrong. Research, learn new skills and apply them, create content and you’ll get better results. There are a lot of resources on YouTube that you can take advantage of. But if you want something structured that only focus and teaches you what is necessary, a good place to go to learn the skills you need to build an affiliate marketing business in simple steps is ClickFunnels’ 4-day FREE affiliate bootcamp summit. Inside that program, you will learn the strategies that will 10X your affiliate campaign results.

I also recommend you get these two valuable books by Russell Brunson, Co-founder of ClickFunnels, which are the DotCom Secrets and the Expert Secrets. They all are free, you’ll only pay for the shipping cost and the books will be delivered to your address.

Experts Secrets And Dotcom Secrets
Image Source:

Here’s What To Do Next

Now, all you have to do is to download my new affiliate book, Simple Steps To a 6-Fugure Business With Affiliate Marketing. Inside, you will see all you need to start your successful affiliate marketing business.

Simple Steps To a 6-Figure Business

I hope you got value from this post where I showed you how to start affiliate marketing in simple steps. Now, share it with your friends and family on social media. It helps me help more people live life on their own terms. Also, if you have any questions, feel free to leave them in the comment section below and I will make sure to get back to you as soon as possible.

Follow me on Social media

My Facebook Profile || YouTube Channel

It’s your time to shine,

– Videgla

P.S. In case you want to build a high-ticket affiliate business without losing money in the process, click here to learn more about the affiliate program I’m personally promoting to take my business to the next level and live the life of freedom I always wanted.


62 thoughts on “Affiliate Marketing In Simple Steps: How To Start Your Business Online”

  1. hello, i really want to first appreciate your effort in putting this great website together and writing this article. making money online is every internet user’s delight and the best way to do that with ease is by affiliate marketing. i appreciate the steps you have laid out as it will help me to grow in my online business

    1. Hey my friend,

      I’m happy to have you here. The steps I laid out in this post are the ones I personally use and I can assure you it works.

      Thank you!

  2. Hello Videgla, Thank  you for writing on Affiliate Marketing In Simple Steps to Start Your Business Online. I enjoy and learn a lot from your article. You tell everything step by step. It is really helpful for beginner like me. I recently started my carrier in online business. Your guide is very helpful for me and I will apply your guide in my business. 

    Thank you


  3. I know there are many business models online but my favourite so far is Affiliate Marketing as it does not require the Affiliate Marketer to own his own product. We can easily market other people’s products and earn commissions on the sales we make based on the agreement. I plan on using a website/blog, social media, YouTube and probably paid ads even as I progress. Thanks for sharing the tips and for this amazing book.


  4. Thank you for this article and the step by step plan to start an online business. In my opinion, many people think it goes fast and they want to make quick results. However, it needs a lot of time and effort to build a sustainable online business. People should be aware of this and put in the effort to be successful. Keep up the good work!

    1. Hey Nick, Thank you for your positive comment. Feel free to come back with any questions you may have. Talk soon!

  5. I must say that this is a very nice and also very interesting and informative,as we all know affiliate marketing has become a very hot niche in recent times but for one to go into he or she to have a proper understanding and that is what you have giving us in this article thanks alot as i know it would be of help to us all

  6. Hi Videgla,

    Since 2008 I tried many make money online programs and products. Unfortunately, I tried almost everything except Affiliate Marketing. How I wish I had found your post sooner when I first started! I had to go through the old way of trial and errors.

    In 2016 I started to focus on Affiliate Marketing and what you said is true “It’s very simple and easy”. The best thing is we can start it with a very low investment. Since December 2017 I am a full-time affiliate marketer working from home.

    Affiliate Marketing has made Businesses Millions & Ordinary People Millionaires. – Bo Bennett

    Based on my experience Affiliate Marketing is one of the best ways to make money online. I am sure this post is going to save a lot of people’s time, trouble, effort and money. Thanks for the great insights!

    1. You’re welcome, Paul. I’m thankful for your contribution. Feel free to share this post with whoever you think will need it to start and grow a successful affiliate marketing business online. Talk soon!

  7. Thank you for the valuable information you put together in this post, Videgla. It is a great overview for anyone that is new in the affiliate marketing world. I will make sure to check out the books you recommended and try to get my funnel builder in place. I guess I have to get familiar with the ClickFunnels…

    1. Hey my friend, I’m really happy to know I’m helping people with this information I put together. Feel free to come back any time.

  8. Fabulous, just fabulous. I don’t think learning all about afiiliate marketing comes as easy as you have explained it. I must say that one will actually need to blput in some hardwork and have a passion for whatever niche they have decided to pick to make some good money from it. I like how you have explained this and added that learning skills is also helpful. Nive

    1. Henderson, I’m thankful for your contribution. I will say that the process to build affiliate marketing business is really simple, but taking it to the level where it will be providing you with the financial freedom you are looking for is what takes time, abilities, knowledge, requires you to learn new skills and apply them. I made a new video yesterday that covers this topic and you can watch it here.

  9. Hello Videgla, I must say that this article is very helpful and informative. Affiliate marketing is truly one of the best ways to earn online income and what is good is that more and more people are aware of it. I am glad I stumbled upon your article because you simplified the process and make it easy to understand. I will definitely share it on my Twitter profile, my friends and family will find it helpful.

    1. Thank you for taking the time to read and say what you think about my new post. If you really find it helpful, share it with your family and friends as you said. And if you ever have questions, feel free to come back and ask. I will make sure to get back to you as soon as I can.

  10. BlueMoon UniqueFashion

    This is a great post for anyone looking to start their online business. I have been affiliate marketing for over three years and I really love what I do. Before that, I was “trapped” in several MLM systems. Affiliate Marketing has given me the freedom to work from home, not depend on other people (upline or downline), and make more and more money every month.

    1. Hey my friend, I’m happy to know that you too have some experience with affiliate marketing. Thank you for your contribution. I really appreciate it.

  11. I understand that affiliate marketing is a good option to make money with. But I’ve been trying for a long time now to figure out how to actually get paid doing it. I have listened to many people paid for many services with no positive results. What is it that separates the good teachers/courses on affiliate marketing from the bad one’s?

    1. Hey my friend, thank you for your question. You said you’ve “listened to many people paid for many services with no positive results” but I didn’t know about the actions you took. After you listened to many people and paid for services, you need to take massive action by creating content that drives traffic. It could be through videos or blog posts.

      Also, a good teacher or a good course on affiliate marketing must be the one that teaches you new skills, the one that proves over time that their presence in your life is less and less necessary for you to have success online. Not the one that keeps all the so called secrets so you will always need them. I hope this helped.

  12. This is very well explained, step by step. Does your book go into detail about what mistakes people can make in affiliate marketing and how to avoid them? Is there a rough estimate when affiliate marketers can start making money or is it different for everyone, depending on their niches, work, etc? 

    Is it harder to earn an income in high competition niches or is that irrelevant? I have a lot of questions, I know, but your article picqued my curiosity, I would like to learn more. Thank you for the information you shared!

    1. Hey Christine,

      Thank you for your comment. My affiliate book covers the common mistakes that people make when starting an online business and further point the reader to the free training I have on my YouTube channel about that.

      For your second question, there is no estimation that you can believe in as to when an affiliate marketer can start making money from his promotions.

      The more money you invest into tools and training to grow your business, the faster you will get results. If you are using free ways to run your business, it will take longer.

      Here’s the answer to your third question: It’s been taught inside WA that as a beginner, we should go for “low hanging fruits” (keywords with less competition). I personally see competitive niches as where the money is and I should go get some. To speak differently, find my voice, and be able to stand out in those competitive niches, I use a book called the Expert Secrets by Russell Brunson. You can check it out any time.

  13. I really need to up my game with Youtube! In addition, I have not really tried creating any funnels yet. I promote only physical products. Does it make sense to do any sort of funnel for those? Or is that more for a digital product? I tend to write a review of a product and use my affiliate link in that review, but would creating a true funnel be more effective?

    1. Hey my friend, thank you for your question. I will say if the product you are promoting is a physical product like with AmazonAssociate, it’s not a good idea building funnels for those or sending people to an opt-in page. You will run better campaigns if you send them directly to your affiliate product.

      But if you are promoting a digital product, plan first to build an email list. I wish you good luck.

  14. Thanks for all these tips and I’ll definitely investigate more. 

    A question I have on paid ads. 

    Do I want I want to use the campaign to drive people to my website or YouTube channel? 

    Or a I only advertising the product with my unique link? 

    Is there advantages or disadvantages to any of these approaches? 

    1. Thank you for your question. I don’t use paid ad to drive traffic to my website and I don’t recommend you do it. For YouTube, it depends on what you want as result. I use paid ad to give my videos a boost.

      Also, if the product you are promoting is not a physical product like with AmazonAssociate, never send traffic directly to your affiliate link. If you want to be successful with your affiliate marketing business, you have to build an email list while promoting your products.

      You have to know, only about 2% of the people who visit your product page will buy from you right away. If you send traffic directly to your affiliate website, the other 98% will be gone forever. You must send your paid traffic to a capture page (I use ClickFunnels to build my capture pages) where you collect their emails first before you send them to the thank you page.

      So, the first advantage is that you will be able to follow up with your subscribers and convert them into customers. The second one: you can install a Facebook pixel on your capture page and run a re-targeted ad to those who didn’t opt-in into your email list to bring them back.

      You can watch some of my videos on YouTube to learn more about this.

  15. Videgla, I say kudos for this wonderful and detailed you have here, affiliate marketing rules our world this days, a lot of people would be helped on what they need to know and how to go about it with this your piece of article.
    Not neglecting the fact that some people just come online to pass the wrong information about this particular topic, but you stand out among then.
    Bravo! I would say again for this.

    1. Thank you Carol for your positive comment on my post. It really makes my day. Feel free to ask questions in this section if your need help with your marketing.

  16. Videgla, I say kudos for this wonderful and detailed you have here, affiliate marketing rules our world this days, a lot of people would be helped on what they need to know and how to go about it with this your piece of article.
    Not neglecting the fact that some people just come online to pass the wrong information about this particular topic, but you stand out among then.
    Bravo! I would say again for this.

    1. Thank you for your positive comment on my post. It really makes my day. Feel free to ask questions in this section if your need help with your marketing.

  17. Hi! I really liked this post because it describes us how to get started in affiliate marketing in a way that we can all understand. Thanks for sharing all these steps with us. I had been reading other posts and they explain a lot of complicated stuff that discouraged me a bit because I didn’t understand them. You have put me back on track again. I’m grateful.

    I’d love to continue reading your book! I’m determined to make affiliate marketing work for me.

    How long have you been working with affiliate marketing?

    1. Ann, I’m really happy you found value reading my post. I’ve done a little of dropshipping before but switched to affiliate marketing in 2016 – 3 full years now. Just don’t give up and you will surely get there. Talk soon.

  18. Affiliate marketing is broad but you’ve done an amazing job of simplifying and breaking it down such that it can be comprehended by anyone. The aspect of affiliate marketing that I consider very essential to a successful campaign, especially for beginners is the niche selection. 

    This is where a lot of people get hung up (myself included) and for good reasons. People get into affiliate marketing simply to make money. So choosing the wrong niche can be defeating to that end.

    That is why I recommend that a proper research is carried out to determine its profitability and longevity.

    Thanks for sharing, it’s been informative 

  19. Many thanks to you for giving such a wonderful article gift and I enjoyed your article so much. Personally I do affiliate marketing myself and I think that is enough for me to know but after reading your article I realized I have a lot more to learn. I have found in this article all the knowledge needed to do affiliate marketing, and I hope those who read this article will benefit greatly.

    1. Thank you so much. I’m really happy you found value in my post. Feel free to come back with any questions at any time.

  20. To be honest, this a very systematic write up on affiliate marketing and I must say, you made things really simple to understand.

    I always support the content-based affiliate marketing system where you have a website or Youtube channel, just as you mentioned. Of course, creating content is not an easy job but it is the best way to get organic traffic, I guess. There are many affiliate marketing courses on the internet where you can do the job via a single landing page (i.e., Commission Hero), but in the most of those cases, you have to pay a lot for upsells and advertisements. I personally don’t prefer those courses.

    In your marketing automation system, you mentioned about Click funnel. to the best of my knowledge, it is expensive enough. Is there any way to avoid this? A beginner, or a person who even couldn’t earn a healthy income online, Click Funnel would be a costly option for him/her. Is there any better alternative to operating the business at lower expenses?

    1. Dr. SD, thank you for your contribution. The starter plan for ClickFunnels is $97 per month with 14 day free trial which is enough to get the work done. If that’s too much, at least you should be planning to use an email autoresponder or having an opt-in page won’t make any sense.

      So, I recommend using an email marketing software that allows you to build opt-in pages along with sending emails. GetResponse is good at that and you can get started with less than $20 per month.

      Alternatives to ClickFunnels are RoundClicks (starts at $49/month), Instapage (which starts at $199/month), Leadpages (starts at $37/month) and so many more… but remember the quality of the services are not the same.

  21. Hi! I just read your post, very lovely and totally true – I,’ve been to affiliate marketing for quite some time, and I mudt say,if yoj are doing it the right way, success shouldn,,’t be a question. Although to be honest, I don’t use opt,-in pages,despite that Ihave a lot of success. Keep up the good work,


    Primoz P.

  22. I thinkthat your  course affiliate marketing innsimple steps can be a game changer for a lot of people and if you play your cards right with affiliate marketing you can get ahead and not have to  do a normal office job. I will try the programs you mentioned. Which of these programs is most important?

    1. Hey Jon, thank you for your question. You are using WA and I will not mention it here. You know how important it is to have a website that is a knowledge base for your business.

      As for the product to promote in addition to WA, I recommend being part of a high-ticket affiliate program paying $1,000+ commissions per sale. That’s how you will get to 6-figures a year fast and I recommend Legendary Marketer. Thank you again and I will see you soon!

  23. The Family Explorers

    I can appreciate all who offer assistance with the steps to building an Affiliate Marketing business. There are the basics, as well as the areas where we can make it our own. I also like how this business has no limitations. As long as we keep learning and applying new information and skills, our businesses will continue to grow.

    1. Hey my friend, thank you for your time and most importantly your contribution. I hope to seen you around very often!

  24. Hello Videgla

    Your article Affiliate Marketing in Simple steps was a very good to read. I have a website concerning weight loss, making money online and fashion niche websites. The places to get digital products for these niches you have outlined is ClickBank, jvzoo and warrior plus.

    Do you find jvzoo the best program to use when selecting information products for my website? I currently use ClickBank the most as trusted more.

    Clickfunnels will have to research more before joining.

    1. Hey Jannette, ClickBank is not bad. As you said, they are the most trusted because they’ve being in business for over a decade. But that’s also the place where you will mostly get scammed: a sale that will not show you as the referrer, a commission that will never be paid to you, etc…

      That’s why I prefer JVZoo. There, you can also find products that will pay you 100% commission. All those types of product owners need is the lead and you keep the money. You can check the Commission Black Ops of Micheal Cheney in this review for that.

  25. I have mixed feelings about using Udimi for driving online traffic. Some people say they don’t really give you the quality visitors that you are looking for. And all of it could be a waste of money. Have you had a lot of success using Udimi? How much on average do you spend per month on this kind of leeds?

    1. All traffic sources are not the same. You know there are a lot of sellers on Udimi and getting a good or bad traffic will depend on who you are buying your clicks from. For that you will need to test.

      I have 4 sellers I buy traffic from on Udimi, buying 500 clicks per week from the sellers, a different seller every week, with 2-3% conversion rate. If you want to use them, test the sellers first.

      Here are a few things to consider:

      Opt-in rate lower than 30%, it might not be good. A very high opt-in rate, there might be a problem. The open rate of your first email less than 15%, there might also be a problem.

  26. Thank you for a step by step explaining on how to make money as an affiliate marketer. In my opinion, we all can be successful as an affiliate marketer. People just complicate things and get scared by the “online” aspect of it. It is just as has a credible store and be consistent with helping your customer and you will convert.

    However, training is essential as well if you are new to affiliate marketing. I suggest everyone to get the knowledge (invest in YOU) and you will make money online.

    Well said 🙂 

    1. Right!

      I love to see that more and more people agree with my opinion about affiliate marketing. Thank you for your contribution and the time you took to visit my website and comment on my new blog post today.

      I hope to you around very often. Talk soon!

  27. Hi, Sir. I found a lot of useful information here on affiliate marketing. It has always been my passion, but I have been struggling for years to get started and feel a bit like giving up. Reading what you wrote here, gives me new insight, and I will definitely come back to this page for more inspiration. I have felt for a while now I must be doing something wrong, but did  not know how to fix it. You have given me new inspiration. Thank you!

    1. Your comment really makes my day!

      I’m happy to know I helped, motivated one more person today through my new post about how to start affiliate marketing. I’m here to help if you have more questions to ask.

      Talk soon!

  28. Affiliate marketing has really taken off.  I’ve recently started and will say it’s not that difficult.  Put the time into it that you need to make what you want.  If you don’t motivate yourself it won’t happen.  How much do you like that 9 to 5 job?  Do you really enjoy living paycheck to paycheck?  Imagine making money instead of just saving it for the next time you’re broke.

    Thank you for the article


    1. Hey Joe,

      Thank you for taking the time to visit my website and comment on my new post today. Come back with questions at any time. I’m here to help!

  29. Hello there Videgla, I am so delighted to land on this article, you have given us a very helpful step by step guide on how to start an online business.

    I think affiliate marketing is the easiest way to make money online, as you mentioned all I need is a website or a YouTube channel and both are easy to make, I mean these days creating a website is so easy.

    And creating a YouTube channel is a piece of cake, although, with YouTube, most people are not comfortable in front of a camera, so perhaps a website is the best option, in the beginning.

    You have mentioned a couple of affiliate networks that I am not familiar with and those are jvzoo and the warrioorplus I am familiar with the amazon affiliate program although I hear that once one clicks your Amazon link, they only have 24 hours to make a purchase.

    I hope the other ones you mentioned have a longer cookie, so we can get a longer time to have an opportunity to make a sale.

    Thank you so much for this step by step guide, it was very easy to understand and I love how you have recommended different websites that will help us, kick start our online businesses. So helpful and professional.


    1. Hey Rose, you said it all!

      I will only thank you for the time you spent on my website today and invite you to share the knowledge with people you think it will be helpful to. Also, don’t hesitate to come back with questions if you have any and I will make sure to get back to you as soon as I can.

      Thank you again for your contribution. Talk soon!

  30. I’m new to affiliate marketing and can say that I’ve learnt a lot of things here. I’ve been hearing about ClickFunnels but don’t really know what it’s all about. I think that this is the best time for me to build my knowledge on it. Now I know that even in affiliate marketing there are several ways to make money. You just proof that.

    1. You’re right, James! There are several ways to make money online; even with ClickFunnels. ClickFunnels is a great tool to use when building opt-in pages and funnels.

      If you don’t want to invest now, you can just join their affiliate bootcamp summit for free, learn some top affiliate marketers secrets, see them use the software in front of your eyes so you can have the tome to learn and decide without any commitment.

      Thank you for your time. I really appreciate it and hope to see you around very often.

      Talk soon!

  31. I’m not really good at making videos but I’m glad that there are other alternatives to this. Maybe in the future I’ll become accustom to that. I’m interested in the ClickFunnels and want to learn more about it. I can see that it has a 14-day free trial which is a good thing. This will really help me know the basics.

    1. Yes, ClickFunnels is a great tool to use when building opt-in pages and funnels.

      If you don’t want to invest now, you can just join their affiliate bootcamp summit for free, learn some top affiliate marketers secrets, see them use the software in front of your eyes so you can have the tome to learn and decide without any commitment.

      Thank you for your time. I really appreciate it.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *